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By: Bill Buechner
The Second Circuit which covers New York, Connecticut and Vermont, has issued an en banc decision holding that Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. Zarda v. Altitude Express, 2018 U.S. U.S. App. LEXIS 4608 (2d Cir. Feb. 26, 2018). The Seventh Circuit issued an en banc decision almost a year ago reaching the same conclusion.
The 10-3 decision is very lengthy and includes various concurring and dissenting opinions. The Second Circuit cited four primary grounds for its holding. First, the Court concluded that sexual orientation discrimination is merely a subset of sex discrimination, and that an employer cannot discriminate against an employee based on sexual orientation without reference to the employee’s sex. Second, the Court concluded that “but for” the employee’s sex, the employee would not have been terminated. In other words, the male employee was terminated because he is attracted to men, whereas a female employee who is attracted to men would not have been terminated. Third, the Court concluded that sexual orientation discrimination constitutes gender stereotyping that is unlawful under Price Waterhouse. Finally, the Court concluded that sexual orientation discrimination constitutes association discrimination that is already prohibited by Title VII.
As previously discussed here, in Evans v. Georgia Regional Hospital, 850. F3d 1248 (11th Cir. 2017), the Eleventh Circuit re-affirmed prior circuit precedent and held that Title VII does not prohibit discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation. The Eleventh Circuit subsequently declined to hear the case en banc, and the Supreme Court denied the plaintiff’s petition for certiorari in that case.
The Zarda decision increases the likelihood that other circuits (perhaps including the Eleventh Circuit) will revisit whether Title VII prohibits sexual orientation discrimination, and also increases the possibility that the Supreme Court may eventually decide to resolve this issue. In the meantime, employers should monitor federal case law developments in their jurisdiction and keep in mind that the EEOC has taken the position that Title VII prohibits discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation.
If you have any questions or would like additional information, you may contact Bill Buechner at firstname.lastname@example.org.